The retina sends light-sensitive nerve tissue to the brain in a thin layer that encloses the inner wall of the eyeball, converting light into neural messages.
Retina: The eyeball is filled to the brim with a jelly-like substance called vitreous. In childhood and adolescence, the vitreous has a relatively high consistency. But gradually, with age, it loses its consistency and its connection to the retina weakens, in which case the posterior parts of the vitreous separate from the retina and sometimes part of the retina. It is pulled and a tear or hole is made in the retina, causing flies and sparks that the patient must be examined.
Retinal detachment: means the separation of the sensitive nerve layers of the retina from the pigmented layer of the retina.
And if left untreated, it can cause severe vision loss.
Who is most at risk for retinal detachment?
Various factors increase the risk of retinal detachment. The most important of these factors are:
Age: Spontaneous retinal detachment is rare in people under 40 and usually occurs in people over 50.
Severe myopia: In this condition, the retina is thin and vulnerable, and the chances of making a hole in it are higher than normal.
History of eye surgery
• Diabetes
Family history of retinal detachment or a history of the disease in another person’s eye.
• Severe blow to the head, face or eyes
• The rate of separation is equal in both sexes.
Signs and symptoms
Retinal detachment can cause several symptoms:
• See sparks of light in the field of view
• Seeing floating objects in front of the eyes that may be seen as flies, dark spots or spider webs.
• Sudden vision loss. Feeling the presence of a curtain or shadow in front.
It should be noted that retinal detachment does not cause pain or redness of the eye and does not change the appearance of the eye in the early stages. Therefore, in case of any of the above problems, see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.
Treatment of retinal detachment
The only effective treatment for retinal detachment is surgery.
The appropriate type of surgery is determined by the location, size, type, and severity of the retinal detachment. Two basic principles in the treatment of retinal detachment are:Close the holes

Bringing the retina closer to the underlying layers and outer wall of the eye, so that the retina can stick in place, which is done by two methods of scleral buckle or vitrectomy with injection of gas or silicone oil.
Scleral buckle
In this method, a buckle (a sponge or soft silicone tape) is sutured to the sclera (sclera or white of the eye) and pressed inwards like a tight belt, the outer wall remains permanently in place. Stays.
In this method, the vitreous is removed from the eye first. If there is bleeding inside the eye, the blood is washed away. The vitreous is then replaced with sterile serum. In certain cases, after the operation, a special substance called silicone oil or expandable gas is injected to fill the eyeball from the inside and hold the retina in place with internal pressure. When silicone oil is inside the eye, vision is severely impaired. After a few months

When the retina sticks in place, with a re-surgery, oil is removed and saline is injected instead.
Postoperative careAfter surgery, especially the scleral buckle and vitrectum, the eyes are painful and sensitive for several days or weeks.

In case of problems, it is usually necessary to use antibiotic drops for one to two weeks and anti-inflammatory drops for several weeks after surgery.

After retinal surgery, it is necessary to see a ophthalmologist regularly to control the condition of the retina and prevent possible complications.

The position of the head and face is determined by the doctor based on the conditions and materials used (silicone oil or gas) during the operation.

Avoid sneezing and pushing after the operation.

Try not to get water in the eye after surgery. Only clean around the eyes with cotton wool and chilled boiled water is allowed. Avoid shampoo or soap getting into the eyes for the first week or two. If possible, use mild shampoos such as baby shampoo.

It is better to refrain from driving until you go to the clinic for a postoperative visit and ask your doctor about this.

People who have had retinal surgery due to diabetes
They should check their blood sugar regularly after the operation to prevent complications.

Patients who have been injected with an expandable retina into their eye during surgery can not travel by air or move to heights until the gas is absorbed into the eye.

Does not have a special diet. It is okay to have sex one month after the operation.
Surgery result
The outcome of surgery depends on two important factors:

The extent of retinal detachment and the length of time the retina has been detached.

Condition of the visual center before and after the operation
Prevention of retinal detachment
It is recommended that all people at risk control their eyesight at home. For this purpose, the vision of each eye should be controlled separately by closing the other eye, and in case of any of the following symptoms, within 24 hours at most. See a doctor:
Feeling of a veil or shadow in front of the eyes
• See light sparks
Occurrence of new flies or increase in the number of flies (floating objects in front of the eyes)
• See tour-like networks in front of your eyes
• Any sudden decrease in vision or decrease in field of view

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